By Ortega y Gasset Jose

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53 Quine, “On What There Is” (note 5 above), p. 1. 54 William James, A Pluralistic Universe (Hibbert Lectures, 1909); in Essays on Radical Empiricism and A Pluralistic Universe, ed. Richard J. Bernstein (New York: E. P. , 1971), 123–278. The metaphysical picture offered here, however, is obviously very different from James’s. org/about; Max Tegmark, “Parallel Universes,” in John D. Barrow, Paul C. W. Davies, and Charles L. , Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology, and Complexity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 459–91; or, for a summary presentation, Tegmark, “Parallel Universes,” Scientific American, May 2003: 41–51.

Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Basic Works of Logical Empiricism (New York: Garland, 1996), vol. 1, 342–47. 14 Two key ideas were already in place: that metaphysics is a substantial enterprise; and that the old question of nominalism versus realism— “that question on which each new-fledged masculine intellect likes to try its powers of disputation”15—remains crucial. ” Another key idea began to grow: that “realism” refers, not to a single, unitary philosophical thesis, but to a whole unruly family of theses, some logically independent of others.

45 Haack, “Reflections on Relativism” (note 26 above), pp. 152–3. 51 But I will set all this aside for now, to focus specifically on the metaphysical theory that gradually emerged—the theory I called “Innocent Realism” to signal that (while it is not, I hope, naive) it is not burdened by the various philosophically overoptimistic aspirations of some ambitious forms of Metaphysical Realism, scientific realism, etc. 3 The Core of Innocent Realism Unlike the old Positivists, I believe metaphysics is a legitimate enterprise.

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