By Éric Gilli
Hydrogeology, the technology of groundwater, calls for a multidisciplinary strategy concerning many different sciences: floor hydrology, climatology, geology, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, and extra. This e-book takes a vast view, considers water as a unmarried entity, and provides many examples illustrating the diversity of current hydrogeological difficulties and the various medical, technical, and social techniques utilized in resolving them. it really is meant essentially for college students of Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and actual Geography. it is going to even be valuable to all avid gamers thinking about water-related matters: hydrogeologists, geologists, soil scientists, agronomists, civil engineers, and builders.
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Additional resources for Hydrogeology: Objectives, Methods, Applications
Where does the subterranean world of the hydrogeologist begin and end? Is water contained in magma a part of it? Do hot springs at midocean ridges fall under the domain of hydrogeology? Does one classify as subterranean a river crossing a cave/tunnel such as the Mas d’Azil (Ariège)? Is soil, where important physico-chemical reactions take place and where water can be extracted by plants, a subterranean domain? The reader will therefore understand that the simple definition “science of subterranean water” is intentionally vague, so to be all the more precise.
Part of the total precipitation seeps into the ground and makes up infiltrated water, domain of hydrogeology. Indeed, once water reaches a permeable surface, infiltration can occur. Infiltration is partial and diffuse in most cases, or quasi-nonexistent in impermeable rock (clay), but it can be total and concentrated in certain karst systems, where rivers seep into underground cavities (see chap. A8). Hydrogeology is primarily concerned with the subterranean part of the water cycle, between infiltration and reemergence.
Of particular note are series of fractured rocks composed of soluble minerals (evaporites, carbonates), as they will have undergone the process of karstification. Pure water is, indeed, capable of dissolving a large quantity of halite, and a lesser quantity of gypsum, and water containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is capable of dissolving calcite, aragonite, and dolomite. In such a situation, the porosity and permeability of fractures is greatly increased from the original fractured environment. This increase in permeability can occur only if the rock unit can eliminate ions in solution, as well as insoluble residue (clay, quartz, silicates), and if the carbonate minerals do not precipitate in the fractures that were previously enlarged through dissolution.