By George Y. Lai
Corrosion experts, layout engineers, operations and upkeep managers operating with boilers, generators, and high-temperature processing apparatus, or in industries saving strength assets via waste restoration boilers, or operating with or offering corrosion-resistant fabrics.
Read Online or Download High-temperature corrosion and materials applications PDF
Best machinery books
This ebook offers a finished examine business compressors. Readers can discover a good deal of knowledge in response to lengthy business adventure, on a transparent and well-founded method of real-gas dealing with, and on recommendations to many functional difficulties. "Process Centrifugal Compressors" provides engineering contractors and clients of business compressors with a greater perception into the "how" and "why" of other layout positive factors, therefore delivering a superb foundation for facing brands.
A whole, state of the art advisor to the layout, functions, and upkeep of valves and actuators. Todays creation approaches contain new and unique fluids, severe pressures and temperatures, and more and more subtle electrical and digital approach keep an eye on expertise. What new valves and actuators can be found to satisfy the demanding situations dealing with mechanical designers, process/control engineers, and upkeep body of workers?
Additional info for High-temperature corrosion and materials applications
59 Dynamic oxidation resistance of several wrought superalloys including MA956 alloy in highvelocity combustion gas stream (170 m/s) at 1100 °C (2010 °F) with 30 min cycles. Source: Ref 83 Specific weight change, mg/cm2 10 Coated MAR-M-200 0 MA 956 –10 HDA8077 –20 –30 –40 STCA-264 –50 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 Cycles Fig. 3 gas stream with each cycle consisting of 1 h at temperature followed by quenching to ambient temperature for 3 min. Source: Ref 78 of chromium from the alloy interior diffusing to the oxide/metal interface.
When the chromium concentration in the alloy matrix immediately beneath the oxide scale is reduced to below a critical concentration, the alloy matrix no longer has adequate chromium to reform a protective Cr2O3 oxide scale when the scale cracks or spalls due to oxide growth stresses or thermal cycling. , oxides of base metal) form and grow on the alloy surface. Breakaway oxidation, thus, initiates, and the alloy begins to undergo oxidation at a rapid rate. This is illustrated in Fig. 51. The alloy thus requires the level of chromium immediately underneath the chromium oxide scale to have a critical level to allow the chromium oxide scale to reheal.
5% Ni. 10. More information about superalloys for gas turbines is available in Ref 62 to 66. Long-term oxidation data in air at an intermediate temperature were generated by Barrett (Ref 67) for 33 alloys, from ferritic stainless steels to superalloys. Tests were performed at 815 °C (1500 °F) for 10,000 h with 1000 h cycles (a total of 10 cycles). The results are shown in Fig. 49. 5Nb) compared with alloys 601 and 800HT when tested for up to about 1 year in air at 1090 °C (2000 °F). 5Mo) and Type 409 (Fe-11Cr), can suffer severe oxidation.