By George Y. Lai

Corrosion experts, layout engineers, operations and upkeep managers operating with boilers, generators, and high-temperature processing apparatus, or in industries saving strength assets via waste restoration boilers, or operating with or offering corrosion-resistant fabrics.

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59 Dynamic oxidation resistance of several wrought superalloys including MA956 alloy in highvelocity combustion gas stream (170 m/s) at 1100 °C (2010 °F) with 30 min cycles. Source: Ref 83 Specific weight change, mg/cm2 10 Coated MAR-M-200 0 MA 956 –10 HDA8077 –20 –30 –40 STCA-264 –50 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 3200 Cycles Fig. 3 gas stream with each cycle consisting of 1 h at temperature followed by quenching to ambient temperature for 3 min. Source: Ref 78 of chromium from the alloy interior diffusing to the oxide/metal interface.

When the chromium concentration in the alloy matrix immediately beneath the oxide scale is reduced to below a critical concentration, the alloy matrix no longer has adequate chromium to reform a protective Cr2O3 oxide scale when the scale cracks or spalls due to oxide growth stresses or thermal cycling. , oxides of base metal) form and grow on the alloy surface. Breakaway oxidation, thus, initiates, and the alloy begins to undergo oxidation at a rapid rate. This is illustrated in Fig. 51. The alloy thus requires the level of chromium immediately underneath the chromium oxide scale to have a critical level to allow the chromium oxide scale to reheal.

5% Ni. 10. More information about superalloys for gas turbines is available in Ref 62 to 66. Long-term oxidation data in air at an intermediate temperature were generated by Barrett (Ref 67) for 33 alloys, from ferritic stainless steels to superalloys. Tests were performed at 815 °C (1500 °F) for 10,000 h with 1000 h cycles (a total of 10 cycles). The results are shown in Fig. 49. 5Nb) compared with alloys 601 and 800HT when tested for up to about 1 year in air at 1090 °C (2000 °F). 5Mo) and Type 409 (Fe-11Cr), can suffer severe oxidation.

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