By Donald Mackay; et al
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Extra info for Handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals. 4
Only if the water advection or reaction rates are increased by about this factor will these processes become significant. As pH increases, reaction in, and advection from, water increase in importance. 22 for the two pHs) are regarded as the most realistic depictions of chemical fate. This calculation includes an estimation of intermedia transport. Examination of the magnitude of the intermedia D values given in the fate diagrams suggest that water-sediment and air-soil transport are most important, with soil-water, and air-water exchange being slower.
The reader can deduce the fate of any desired discharge pattern by appropriate scaling and addition. It is important to emphasize that because the values of transport velocity parameters are only illustrative, actual environmental conditions may be quite different; thus, simulation of conditions in a specific region requires determination of appropriate parameter values as well as the site-specific dimensions, reaction rate constants and the physical-chemical properties which prevail at the desired temperature.
7 × 10–4 g/m3, or 670 ng/L. The third row shows the fate if discharge is to soil. The amount in soil is 67460 kg, reflecting an overall 87 h residence time. The rate of reaction in soil is only 85 kg/h and there is no advection; thus, the primary loss mechanism is transfer to air (T31) at a rate of 905 kg/h, with a relatively minor 10 kg/h to water by run-off. The net result is that the air concentrations are similar to those for air discharge and the soil acts only as a reservoir. 5 ng/g is controlled almost entirely by the rate at which the benzene can evaporate.