By George E Totten
The up to date moment variation of this guide at the use of lubricants in various end-use functions remains to be a state of the art contribution to the fields of business lubrication and tribology. This publication addresses the newest know-how relating to checking out and upkeep methods, in addition to adjustments in our knowing of the way lubrication ideas influence implementation. It contains new international criteria on safeguard, environmental defense, and waste remedy. it is usually a cross-reference of those criteria and discusses purposes within the microelectronics industry. Read more...
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Extra resources for Handbook of lubrication and tribology. / Volume 1, Application and maintenance
Sliding now occurs on a harder material. In metals and some ceramics, there are new chemical species formed, such as oxides, which over time can become thicker or could flake off. This changes friction. And in some polymers, the surface molecules become oriented in the direction of sliding in single-pass sliding but become randomly arranged in reciprocating sliding. 7 Frictional Vibrations, Stick Slip, Stiction, Etc. If you set a block of wood on a table and pull it with a rubber band, the rubber band stretches as the prime mover (hand) moves.
3 Methods of Surface Analysis All “beam-in, beam-out” techniques operate on the same principle: send a beam of photons, electrons, or ions at a surface and collect photons, electrons, or ions from the surface. 8 Perhaps, the earliest and best example of this collaboration is x-ray (Bragg) diffraction. In 1913, William Lawrence Bragg and his father, William Henry Bragg, discovered that x-rays reflected off crystalline solids produced patterns representative of a lattice structure. For this discovery, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1915, the only father–son team to win.
4 Chart of surface analytical techniques. (Chart Courtesy of Evans Analytical Group®, http://www. ) depths from 1 nm (STEM) to 1 cm (XRR). So, if one needed to identify, for example, a thin boundary film in a wear scar 100 μm wide, AES could do the job but XRF or RBS could not. 18–20 Herein is a survey of many techniques that are used by tribologists today and introduce a few others that might be useful in the future. 1 Microscopy: Imaging to the Nanoscale The unaided human eye is capable of resolving features down to tens of micrometers in size and seeing colors over the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, roughly from 400 to 700 nm.