By William O'Donohue
Instruction manual of Behaviorism offers a entire unmarried resource that summarizes what behaviorism is, how many of the "flavors" of behaviorism have differed among significant theorists either in psychology and philosophy, and what elements of these theories were borne out in study findings and remain of use in realizing human habit.
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2 . Ethological Investigation s Although Watson (1904) emphasized the importance of laboratory experimentation, he also valued careful observational and field research . On invitation from the Carnegie Institution, he made field trips in 1907, 1908, 1910, and 191 3 to study the Noddy and Sooty Tern Colony on Key Bird of the Tortugas Islan d Group off southern Florida (Watson, 1907b, 1908a, 1910a, 1910c, 1912b) . There, he made careful records of the birds' distribution on the island ; their feeding, nesting, and mating habits ; their care for their young ; and the young birds ' development .
As Watson (1913b) wrote: "[e]ither psychology must change its viewpoint so as to take in the facts of behavior, whether or not they have bearings upon the problems of 'consciousness' ; or else behavior must stand alone as a wholly separate and independent science " (p . 159) . 2. Toward Behaviorism Not all philosophy and psychology sought to harmonize mind and body, how ever . Other scholars and scientists attempted to naturalize them both and science as well . Some of these efforts were precursors to Watson's behaviorism ; others were parallel programs from which it would draw .
Behaviorism at times has been see n by some as a finished product that provides all sorts of answers to all sorts o f questions . Some behaviorists have asserted their position with a smugness an d condescension others find off-putting . Thus, at times the dogmatic way som e have embraced behaviorism has aroused strong reactions in others . C. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, SCIENTIFIC THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EMPIRICAL FINDINGS, AND CLINICAL IMPLICATION S Behaviorism is most properly considered a philosophy of the science of human behavior.