By Luís Ribeiro

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G. Phragmites mauritianus). g. maize), there is also a dense network of roads and pathways as well as heavy grazing by cattle and goats. 3 Schematic of groundwater PVC piezometer and tensiometer instrumentation (not to scale). with raised bed and furrow systems, cultivated predominantly with another regional staple, madumbe (Colocasia esculenta). Instrumentation was installed during the latter half of the 2005 dry season (August–October) in order to determine the hydrological processes within the wetland catchment at the commencement of the first rains October–November.

The effects of pumping on groundwater dependent environments have been evaluated. 5 m drawdown within approximately 1 km of the boreholes with no impact on the lake system towards the east after the second year of operation. 1 INTRODUCTION The Yanchep Caves contain a unique ecological system that is dependent on groundwater for their survival. The caves are located within the Yanchep National park, located about 45 km north of Perth, Western Australia (Fig. 1). 8 km2 and contains about 300 caves.

0. Examination of the Schoeller diagram indicates that groundwater is NaCl type within the intergranular aquifer towards the east and gradually mixes with a CaHCO3 type of groundwater while passing through the calcareous sands (Fig. 4). The concentrations of Ca and HCO3 ions gradually increases within the calcareous sands and become dominant within the carbonate aquifer (YN5, GA1, and YN8). 36 C. 2 Hydrogeology map of the study area. 3 Groundwater Hydrograph, Crystal cave. 4 Schoeller plot showing the groundwater types.

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