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We will see in Chapter 2 that those satellites that formed directly from the circumplanetary disk should have compositional di€erences that re¯ect the temperature distribution of the disk during the period in which the satellites were forming. This is particularly clear for the ``Galilean'' satellites of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), where distinct density and thus compositional di€erences are observed with the inner satellites containing less water and other volatiles than the outer satellites.

Conditions in the early circumstellar disk are likely to have been very turbulent. This turbulence would have led to a net transfer of mass outward in the outer part of the disk, and inwards towards the proto-Sun nearer the center. Associated with this mass ¯ow would have been a net transfer of angular momentum from the proto-Sun to the disk. The transfer of angular momentum would have caused the disk to spread farther and farther out into space, reducing its density. 3 (McCaughrean et al. 1994).

The radius of Jupiter is estimated to be currently shrinking by approximately 1 mm/yr). The emitted ¯ux of Saturn is thought to be too high for the source to be just residual formation heat since this is estimated to have radiated away almost 2 billion years ago. Instead, the source is thought to arise due to internal di€erentiation of helium. We will return to this topic in Chapter 3. 2 OBSERVED ATMOSPHERES OF THE GIANT PLANETS The observable atmospheres of the giant planets are dominated by molecular hydrogen and helium, in proportions roughly similar to that found in the Sun.

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