By Máire Fedelma Cross

What have medieval nuns, parrot taking pictures, Freemasonry, and Shetland revelry received in universal? This learn of monastic orders, guilds, Freemasonry and pleasant societies over centuries and throughout frontiers presents new insights into their contribution to the gendering of public house and the evolution of "separate spheres" in Europe.

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Extra resources for Gender and Fraternal Orders in Europe, 1300-2000

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Gray, The Labour Aristocracy in Victorian Edinburgh (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976), pp. 33, 40, 122–6; Trygve R. Tholfsen, Working Class Radicalism in Mid-Victorian England (New York: Columbia University Press, 1977); John Garrard, Democratisation in Britain: Elites, Civil Society and Reform since 1800 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002). James C. Riley, Sick, Not Dead: The Health of British Workingmen during the Mortality Decline (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997); Geoffrey Finlayson, Citizen, State, and Social Welfare in Britain 1830–1990 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994); Barry Supple, The Royal Exchange Assurance: A History of British Insurance 1720–1970 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970), p.

S. David Smith, ‘Women’s Admission to Guilds in Early-Modern England: The Case of the York Merchant Tailors’ Company 1693–1776’, Gender & History, 17 (2005), 99–126. Frederick Morton Eden, The State of the Poor or An History of the Labouring Classes in England, 3 vols (London: Davis, 1797), I, pp. 595–7. Edward W. Brabook, Provident Societies and Industrial Welfare (London: Blackie & Son, 1898), p. 57; English Gilds, ed. by Joshua Toulmin Smith (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1870, reprinted 1963); Cornelius Walford, Gilds: Their Origin, Constitution, Objects and Later History (London: George Redway, 1888), p.

Clawson, Constructing Brotherhood, p. 11. ’1 Lambert’s quotation vividly illustrates the way in which the medieval guilds have haunted the imagination of those interested in later fraternal societies. The fundamental principle of a voluntary association contributing to a common fund for objects of mutual, charitable and social benefit was first established on a large scale by the guilds. The guilds also elaborated many of the characteristic features of later fraternal organizations. The most important contribution of the guild to the wider development of fraternalism was the articulation of the concept that a voluntary organization could be a surrogate family, with fellow members becoming brothers and sisters, but the guilds also pioneered many other fundamental features of fraternal organizations, such as the members’ feast as a central social activity; the holding of regular business meetings of the membership; the election of officers to hold funds and property and to ensure the members’ compliance with a set of ordinances; the use of processions as the chief expression of the organization’s public face; the administration of oaths to new members and officers; and the use of special clothing to denote membership.

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