By D. Joseph, et al.,

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The fracture surface. This rule is complicated by the type of material because fine-grained materials, like heat-treated steels, tend to have smoother cracks, but similar materials can be compared. Figure 2-14 shows a component that failed from fatigue. The relative size of the fatigue and instantaneous zones tells how heavily loaded the part was. If the small area held the final load, the part was not heavily loaded. If conditions were reverseddsmall fatigue zone and large instantaneous zonedit would show that much more strength was needed to carry the load and the part was heavily loaded.

No corrosion at the fracture surface was apparent. Transformation products, similar to those observed on the fracture surface, were observed in patches on the scored surface of the shaft. The appearance of these products was attributed to scoring and abrasion of the shaft surface during service. The mean hardness was 266 HV/10, corresponding to 25 RC. There was no significant variation in hardness between the edge and the center of the shaft section. Figure 2-24: Horizontal section of a built-in type geared turbine.

Metallurgical Failure Analysis 57 instance, a coke crusher experiences erratic wear, with increased wear occurring at certain abnormal operating conditions. It would stand to reason to investigate what circumstances lead to these operating conditions and then, by eliminating them, stop the accelerated wear of the coke crusher. Wear environments may be corrosive; may have been altered during service, such as by breakdown of a lubricant; may provide inadequate lubrication; or may differ from the assumed environment on which the original material selection was made.

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