By John M. Sharp

Fractured rocks expand over a lot of the realm, cropping out in shields, massifs, and the cores of significant mountain levels. additionally they shape the basement lower than more youthful sedimentary rocks; at intensity; they signify a continual surroundings of prolonged and deep nearby groundwater circulate. knowing of groundwater circulate and solute shipping in fractured rocks is essential for research of water assets, water caliber and environmental security, geotechnical and engineering tasks, and geothermal strength creation. publication chapters contain theoretical and useful analyses utilizing numerical modelling, geochemistry, isotopes, aquifer exams, laboratory exams, box mapping, geophysics, geological analyses, and a few specified combos of those forms of research. present water source and geotechnical difficulties in lots of countries―and the ideas now used to handle them―are additionally mentioned. the significance of geological interpretation is re-emphasised in analysing the hydrogeology of fractured, often crystalline rocks and in how severe this is often for realizing their hydrology and the clever utilisation of assets. this can be certainly hydrogeology in its broadest feel. the significance of, yet nice hassle in, extending or upscaling fractured rock hydraulic homes can be made clear.

This ebook is geared toward working towards hydrogeologists, engineers, ecologists, source managers, and maybe most significantly, scholars and earth scientists now not but conversant in the ubiquity and significance of fractured rock systems.

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Consequently, the resulting stress tensor is characterised by a minor vertical component (σ3), and two major ones (σ1 and σ2) that are horizontal. , 2004). 2). In foliated and folded rocks, the variability of the orientation of the minerals able to swell as well as the ones of the weaker surfaces of the rock (foliation, schistosity) induce an anarchic fracturing, without any preferential orientation. 3). , 1982). Nevertheless, even if the early weathering of biotites leads to a local clogging of the biotite mineral and its surroundings at a millimeter scale, the density of biotites in the parent rocks is not high enough to clog the aperture of all the fractures of the fissured layer at a meter to decameter scale.

Joints, dykes or veins). This concept unifies the geological and hydrogeological observations and data about hard rocks. Its recognition opens up large perspectives in terms of applied hydrogeology and geology: mapping hydrogeological potential, water well siting, quantitative management and modelling of the groundwater resource, computing the drainage discharge of tunnels and even quarrying in hard rocks. 1 Hydrogeological definition of hard rocks Hard rocks, or crystalline rocks, are plutonic and metamorphic rocks (Michel & Fairbridge, 1992).

This (or these) more recent weathering phase(s) were efficient enough to hydrogeologically rejuvenate the old weathering profile through the development of new permeable weathering induced fractures. 6) differential weathering between metamorphic rocks and a granodiorite, and also a polyphased weathering, uplift and stripping history explain the complex structure of the weathering profile. , 2003). The weathering profiles or weathering structures not only rely on the present day climate, but also and mainly on ancient ones.

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