By Emmy Klieneberger-Nobel

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T h e short cells c o n t a i n t w o , t h e l o n g e r o n e s c o n t a i n four s t r u c t u r e s . M a g n i ­ fication: X 2500. 58 F O C U S ON B A C T E R I A In some of the shorter bacilli two fat, darkly stained structures are seen; they are soon going to split and divide into four structures. In other bacteria four structures can be seen. In Fig. 37 a swarming proteus organism is seen. It is in the same stage as the proteus of Fig. 12 which had been stained for flagella. T h e present picture shows the long swarm­ ing organisms as they appear when stained for nuclear structures.

For a long time, it was believed that bacteria were "out­ siders" and that they did not pass on their characters from one genera­ tion to the other by mechanisms similar to those of the higher organisms. The workers studying genetics in bacteria have, however, shown that bacteria, like all other living creatures, animals and plants, possess genes. In this research, flagella have played a big part, because the character of bearing flagella is determined by genes. T h e typhoid bacillus, for example, and other bacteria belonging to the same genus, called Salmonella, possess these genes.

T h e composition of the cell wall is quite different from the material inside the bacterial cell or the outer elements such as capsules, slime and flagella. Some building blocks are common to all cell walls of bacteria so far examined. Thus they all contain F I G . 24. Spirillum " W i e r i n g a " . R e p r o d u c e d from A . L . H o u w i n k ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Biochim. biophys. Acta, 10, 3 6 . E l e c t r o n m i c r o g r a p h o f c e l l - w a l l p r e p a r a t i o n . H o u w i n k s a y s : " W h e n v i e w e d f r o m t h e inside t h e w a l l l o o k s structureless (B) e x c e p t i n s o m e a r e a s w h e r e a n a p p a r e n t i n n e r m e m b r a n e h a s c o m e off.

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