By Hannah Genheimer

Virtual realities offer a superb instrument in anxiousness study. a terror conditioning examine investigates and illustrates the improvement of hysteria issues in people. Hannah Genheimer describes the clinical heritage of worry and anxiousness and provides an empirical learn in a hugely managed digital surroundings. Psychophysiological in addition to subjective facts at the members’ worry and nervousness truly exhibit contextual worry conditioning. Cue conditioning within the gentle of one-trial studying is mentioned. the implications emphasize the promising program of digital environments in psychotherapy.

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Extra info for Fear and Anxiety in Virtual Reality: Investigations of cue and context conditioning in virtual environment

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Interstimulus intervals varied between 1500 and 2500 ms. The screenshots were carefully chosen according to their physical properties and subjective ratings developed in the pilot study mentioned above. Depending on the experimental condition, 24 screenshots of the safety context (CXT-) and 24 of the anxiety context (12 CXT+US; 12 CXT+noUS) were presented three times, so the EEG experiment comprised a total number of 144 trials. As already explained above, safety and anxiety contexts as well as groups of screenshots with and without electric shock were counterbalanced across participants.

First, demographic information (age, gender, education, profession and handedness) was collected. Moreover, inclusion criteria were requested another time in written form, especially in regard to the subject’s liability to nausea (supplement F). , 2011). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988; German version by Krohne, Egloff, Kohlmann & Tausch, 1996) determines the subject’s momentarily emotional state in dominant two dimensions. The positive affect part describes the extent of a person’s enthusiasm, activity, attention, lethargy and sadness, whereas the negative affect part gathers the degree of negative tension, petulance, nervousness and anxiety.

Data is depicted in Figure 5D, on the left side. But one has to emphasize that only aware participants are included in the data analyses. 001. The right part in Figure 5D additionally shows US expectancies rated by the four unaware subjects. 5). 267. Therefore, it was suggested that these participants did not learn the associations between electric shocks in a distinct environment and justifies data exclusion of the subjects. 5 Contingency ratings After EEG-measurement, participants observed the screenshots again which were used in the test-phase (see Fig.

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