By Jonathan Nott
The review of dangers posed by means of ordinary risks akin to floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, would possibly not replicate the entire diversity or significance of occasions attainable. As human populations develop, in particular in hazard-prone parts, equipment for appropriately assessing common risk dangers have gotten more and more vital. Jonathan Nott describes the numerous tools used to reconstruct such risks from normal long term files. He demonstrates how long term files are crucial in gaining a practical realizing of the range of normal risks, and the way momentary old documents can frequently misrepresent most likely dangers.
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Such a conclusion is not inconsistent with results from a range of other studies that also suggest the Gleissberg solar cycle may have inﬂuenced climate on Earth over the past few hundred years. , 1983; Currie and Fairbridge, 1985), the level of Nile River ﬂoods in Africa (Fairbridge, 1984), temperature variations (Agee, 1980) and atmospheric 14 C production (Stuiver, 1980; Stuiver and Quay, 1980). Diatoms Like foraminifera, diatoms can be used to infer past drought episodes. Diatoms are small silicic plants that live in both marine and freshwater environments and have species speciﬁc environmental ranges and tolerances.
1 shows the stratigraphy and chronology of one of the dune reactivation sites in this region and highlights a period of dune stabilisation when a soil, radiocarbon dated at around 500 years BP, developed on the then dune surface. Another soil layer, higher in the stratigraphy identiﬁes the termination of a subsequent megadrought. Such droughts, if they were to reoccur today, would bring unprecedented economic hardship to the USA. Forman et al. (2001) suggest that megadroughts would have probably developed during La Ni˜na periods when sea surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Paciﬁc Ocean, and later the tropical Atlantic Ocean, cooled resulting in weaker cyclogenesis in North America.
Plants found in more arid areas tend to have smaller leaf size than plants found in more humid regions. , 1998). Estimates of palaeoprecipitation based on leaf morphology are often based on a method called Wolfe’s Climate Leaf-Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP). This method ordinates a multivariate data set of leaf-morphology characteristics scored from modern vegetation samples that are associated with climate stations. In this way, a quantitative framework can be developed for estimates of climatic variables.