By Sidney A. Katz

Features of Geiger-Muller CountersResolving TimeBackground CorrectionsInverse sq. LawCorrections for Geometry FactorsBack Scatter of RadiationCorrections for Self-absorptionRange of Beta RadiationsAbsorption of Beta RadiationAbsorption of Gamma RadiationRadioactive Decay and tool EfficiencyHalf-life DeterminationInvestigation of 2 IndependentlyDecaying RadionuclidesHalf-life of a Long-lived Read more...

summary: features of Geiger-Muller CountersResolving TimeBackground CorrectionsInverse sq. LawCorrections for Geometry FactorsBack Scatter of RadiationCorrections for Self-absorptionRange of Beta RadiationsAbsorption of Beta RadiationAbsorption of Gamma RadiationRadioactive Decay and tool EfficiencyHalf-life DeterminationInvestigation of 2 IndependentlyDecaying RadionuclidesHalf-life of a Long-lived RadionuclideAutoradiographyCalibration and Operation of the ElectroscopeProperties of Proportional CountersIntegral SpectraGamma Spectrometry IGamma Spectrometry IILiquid Scintillation Cou

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C. Move the source toward the detector. Measure the distance between the source and the detector, and measure the activity of the source at this distance. Record the distance and the activity. d. Repeat step (c) several times at other distances. Experimental data Distance Count Rate Distance Count Rate Distance Count Rate 13 14 Experiments in Nuclear Science G-M Detector Figure 10 Experimental investigation of the inverse square law. Report a. Using Microsoft Excel™ or similar software, plot the observed count rate against the reciprocal of the square of the distance between the radioactive source and the Geiger-Müller detector.

The analogy would be to loss of kinetic energy and a consequent slowing of the beta. The energy loss in such interactions is referred to a bremsstrahlung production. The presence of brensstrahlung is shown at the right side of the attenuation curve in Figure 15. “Brensstrahlung” is a German word meaning braking radiation or radiation produced when the beta slows. The likelihood of bremsstrahlung production increases with beta energy and the atomic number of the absorber. Consequently, the Feather analysis is conducted using aluminum rather than lead absorbers.

When the thickness of the Ba14CO3 is increased, some of the radiations from the bottom of the sample are absorbed before escaping from the solid. This is an example of self-absorption. As shown in Figure 13, self-absorption decreases the observed count rate as the sample thickness increases up to a point where only the radiation originating at and near the surface of the sample is detected. At this point the sample is said to be infinitely thick. , 2008). , 2008). Liquid scintillation counting has eliminated many of the empirically determined corrections associated with the measurement of 14C activity in solid BaCO3 (Gora and Hickey, 1954; Hendler, 1959; Wood, 1971).

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