By Charles L. Wilson

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After 1880, there is little evidence that ballast contributed significantly to the introduction of additional species from Europe. However, in the period following the Civil War, there was increasing commerce with South American countries, and a number of important pests began to appear in the vicinities of the southeastern and Gulf Coast ports that engaged in the South American trade. Such pests as the fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren and S. ritcheri Forel, the mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder and S.

This species invaded Florida from Cuba in 1931 but did not become a pest of significance until the 1960s, when it spread from the Florida Keys into the peninsula. Seem­ ingly, this is a case of climatic adaptation that has enabled the species to expand its range. IV. INCREMENTAL INCREASE IN FOREIGN SPECIES, 1620-1980 A. Species Established before 1800 By 1800, the English colonies on the Atlantic Coast of North America from Maine to Georgia had consolidated into the United States and settlements were pushing westward into the Ohio Valley.

Crafts, A. , and Raynor, R. N. (1952). " McGraw-Hill, New York. Scheja, G. (1969). " Harry N. , New York. Stakman, E. C , and Harrar, J. G. (1957). " Ronald Press, New York. This page intentionally left blank CHAPTER 2 History of Insect Introductions REECE I. SAILER Department I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. I. of Entomology and Nematology University of Florida Gainesville, Florida Introduction Biogeographic Considerations Modes of Entry A. Role of Ship's Ballast B . Role of Plant Introduction C.

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