By Ze'ev Hochberg
Working with ideas from the fields of evolutionary and developmental biology (evo-devo), this attention-grabbing paintings bargains a brand new method of studying baby progress and improvement, interpreting every one level and transition intimately, from fetal improvement to preadulthood. in response to the author's in-depth evaluation of the present literature and his personal observations as a pediatric endocrinologist, the booklet demonstrates how the transitions among human existence historical past levels characterize certain classes of evolutionary adaptive reaction to the surroundings. additionally, the writer explains why an figuring out of those transition sessions allows us to higher comprehend the series and mechanisms of kid development in addition to to raised diagnose baby development disorders.
Logically prepared and obviously written, Evo-Devo of kid Growth:
Sets a pretty good beginning of ideas similar to evolutionary considering in drugs and baby progress, lifestyles historical past conception, and heterochrony and allometry
Examines the connection among baby development and the speculation of existence history
Applies evo-devo concept to fetal development, infancy, early life, juvenility, youth, and preadulthood
Explores the trade-offs and adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the course of transition periods
Explains the function of lifestyles background thought in figuring out and diagnosing development issues equivalent to Down syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Silver-Russell syndrome
In addition to the author's personal research and observations, this ebook additionally good points notes from major clinicians and evolutionary biologists, delivering extra views at the courting among evo-devo and baby development and development.
Evo-Devo of kid development offers a brand new viewpoint for evolutionary biologists to appreciate the stages and transitions of kid development. furthermore, it bargains a brand new method of aid clinicians to raised comprehend and diagnose a wide variety of kid progress disorders.
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–10):
Chapter 2 baby progress and the speculation of existence historical past (pages 11–52):
Chapter three Fetal progress (pages 53–66):
Chapter four Infancy (pages 67–90):
Chapter five early life (pages 91–95):
Chapter 6 Juvenility (pages 96–114):
Chapter 7 formative years (pages 115–126):
Chapter eight formative years (pages 127–130):
Chapter nine Evolutionary techniques for physique measurement (pages 131–142):
Chapter 10 power concerns (pages 143–148):
Chapter eleven level Transitions: Trade?Offs and Adaptive Phenotypic Plasticity (pages 149–178):
Chapter 12 existence background thought in knowing progress issues (pages 179–186):
Chapter thirteen whilst the applications collapse (pages 187–189):
Chapter 14 Concluding comments (pages 190–193):
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Extra info for Evo-Devo of Child Growth: Treatise on Child Growth and Human Evolution
During stress, the gastrointestinal system is inhibited at the level of the stomach via the vagus nerve, while it is stimulated at the level of the large bowel via the LC/NE-activated sacral parasympathetic system. 3). Stress has complex effects upon the immune system, influencing both the innate and acquired immune response (Chrousos 1995, 2000). Cortisol and catecholamines influence leukocyte and accessory immune cell traffic and/or function and suppress inflammatory cytokines, while both hormones produce a systemic switch from Thelper-1- (cellular immunity) to Thelper-2- (humoral immunity) driven immunity.
4, right). In developing children growth may be suppressed as a result of a hypofunctioning growth axis; in adults, stress-induced hypogonadism can be expressed as loss of libido and/ or hypofertility, and sympathetic system hyperactivity can lead to essential hypertension. Chronic stress mediator hypersecretion, given a vulnerable background and a permissive environment, may lead to visceral fat accumulation as a result of chronic hypercortisolism, reactive insulin hypersecretion, low growth hormone secretion and hypogonadism (Chrousos 2009; Chrousos and Kino 2009) (Fig.
1. , “equal division” (Chrousos, Loriaux et al. 1988; Chrousos 2009) (Fig. 1). As long as we live, homeostasis is maintained; its complete dissolution means death. Homeostasis is frequently threatened by disturbing forces, the “stressors,” which can be physical or emotional. The organism has its own means, the “adaptive response,” to counteract these forces and reestablish the steady state. Up to a certain threshold of a stressor strength and duration, the adaptive response is able to bring the usual healthy homeostasis or “eustasis” back from a disturbed state (stress or “distress”) completely, without any cost to the individual (Chrousos 2009) (Fig.