By Denis Bouyssou, Thierry Marchant, Marc Pirlot, Alexis Tsoukias, Philippe Vincke

Formal determination and overview types are units of particular and well-defined principles to assemble, examine, and strategy info on the way to have the capacity to make concepts in choice and/or evaluate techniques. they're so common that nearly nobody can faux to not have used or suffered the results of 1 of them.

In our past better half quantity, Evaluation and determination Models, we seriously criticised formal versions yet we additionally argued that they can be priceless. nevertheless, Evaluation and determination versions with a number of Criteria is a advisor, a fashion of reasoning aimed toward assisting the analyst to decide on a version and use it continuously. we advise, frequently utilizing an axiomatic viewpoint, a legitimate research of innovations aimed toward assisting the choice helping technique. Our presentation is conducted inside of a distinct framework that may be prolonged to so much choice and overview types, as a "decision supporting methodology".

Evaluation and choice types with a number of Criteria is meant for the acutely aware or enlightened practitioner, for an individual who makes use of selection or evaluate models---for learn or for applications---and is prepared to question his perform, to have a deeper realizing of what he does.

The authors of this ebook are ecu lecturers operating in 4 varied universities and learn associations. They educate in engineering, arithmetic, computing device technological know-how and psychology colleges. Their heritage is kind of assorted: arithmetic, economics, engineering, legislations and geology, yet they're all energetic in determination help and extra relatively in a number of standards determination help. choice modelling, fuzzy common sense, aggregation suggestions, social selection idea, man made intelligence, challenge structuring, dimension concept and Operational examine are between their designated interests.

The authors are energetic in theoretical study at the foundations of choice helping, as a rule from an axiomatic perspective. furthermore, the entire authors were concerned and remain engaged in quite a lot of functions from software program assessment to situation of a nuclear repository, during the rehabilitation of a sewer community or the positioning of high-voltage lines.

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1 summarises the differences between the approaches. We may start by dividing these in two groups. On the one hand, normative and descriptive approaches use general models of rationality, established independently from the client and the decision process, intended to model the rationality of decision makers in general. On the other hand, prescriptive and constructive approaches derive a model for the rationality of the contingent client, and only that particular client. The difference between normative and descriptive models mostly lies in the process of obtaining the model.

Preferences are rational desires" (Aristotle, 1990). Practically what we usually know is what a decision maker or a client desires. Where does rationality come from? Suppose a client faces a health problem. He has a set of more or less sure diagnoses and a number of possible treatments of more or less uncertain results. A manual of decision theory will suggest to consider each possible treatment as an alternative action and each possible diagnosis as a possible state of the world t o which a probability might be associated.

We may consider ethical norms, laws and religious Q norms as analogies (for more detail, the reader is referred to the following classics: Fishburn, 1970, 1982; Luce and Raiffa, 1957; Raiffa, 1970; Savage, 1954; @ von Neumann and Morgenstern, 1947; Wakker, 1989). 8 CS Descriptive approaches 8Descriptive approaches derive rationality models from observing how decision @ makers make decisions. Such models are general, in that they should apply to Q a wide range of decision makers facing similar decision problems.

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