By Bengt Källén
Authored via Bengt Källén, professor emeritus in embryology at Lund collage in Sweden.
The topic of this e-book is to explain the incidence of congenital malformations between youngsters born and what chance elements exist. inhabitants information are offered for a couple of malformations, ascertained with using facts from the Swedish nationwide overall healthiness registers for the interval 1998-2010 reminiscent of a few 1.3 million births, including prospectively amassed info on a gaggle of exposures of attainable curiosity. The constitution of the research is such that it excludes reviews of, for example, nutrients, alcohol or highway drug use and plenty of different way of life components the place potential info or self sufficient check in details is hard or very unlikely to acquire.
Epidemiology of Human Congenital Malformations culminates with a dialogue on how the presence of malformations might be defined and diverse probabilities for the prevention of beginning defects. in addition, it's going to contain a chain of directions on how one can learn epidemiological literature during this box making it a vital source either for these at present operating within the box of reproductive epidemiology or these desiring to input it. it is going to also be invaluable for medical professionals operating with malformations, both as obstetricians, neonatologists or pediatricians.
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Additional resources for Epidemiology of Human Congenital Malformations
Among these 66 children, 37 had brain midline anomalies (agenesis of corpus callosum, arrhinencephaly, holoprosencephaly), and eight had only a diagnosis of brain reduction. There were five cases of septo-optic dysplasia, and ten cases with only a cyst diagnosis. The remaining children had other or unspecified brain malformations. Among non-CNS malformations can be noted eye malformations, cleft palate, oesophageal atresia, osteochondrodystrophy, pes equinovarus, and “syndromes”. Pes equinovarus is reasonably a result of the hydrocephaly while chondrodystrophy and craniostenosis may cause hydrocephaly.
2008;146A:2495–500. Johnson CY, Rasmussen SA. Non-genetic risk factors for holoprosencephaly. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2010;154C:73–85. Matsunaga E, Shiota K. Holoprosencephaly in human embryos: epidemiologic studies of 150 cases. Teratology. 1977;16:261–72. Miller EA, Rasmussen SA, Siega-Riz AM, Frías JL, Honein MA, National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Risk factors for non-syndromic holoprosencephaly in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet).
There was sign of an increased risk at high maternal age but statistical significance was not reached. The risk was significantly higher at first parity than at higher parities and the malformations were associated with maternal smoking and high maternal BMI. Only two children were born of diabetic mothers and previous miscarriage or a period of unwanted childlessness did not increase the risk significantly. Neither non-cohabitation, nor being born outside Sweden affected the risk. 1 Source of ascertainment of children with severe ear malformations A total of 259 children were identified with severe ear malformations.