By Yvonne Friedman

This learn examines the customs, criminal codes and socioeconomic mechanisms that developed from the preliminary Christian-Muslim come across on Crusader battlefields. It pinpoints adjustments in ecu mentality, and behavior of battle, tracing acculturation procedures in Frankish society within the Levant. those alterations emerged from the necessity to redeem captives, making check of ransom to the infidel concievable and applicable. The e-book can pay targeted cognizance to the tale of the vanquished, to the placement of ladies, to the behaviour of the army Orders towards captives, and to a dead ringer for the captive in Crusader literature, within the context of creating conflict and peace. This learn will be of curiosity to historians and scholars of medieval historical past, the Crusades, and the Latin nation, medieval literature, and struggle.

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Third, given the problems associated with the sources and thus the necessity for estimation, the numbers scholars offer often indicate as much about the scholar’s political inclinations vis-­à-­vis the Israeli-­Palestinian conflict as they do about the number of residents of Palestine at any given 59 Efron, Defenders of the Race; Hart, Jews and Race; Falk, “Zionism and the Biology of the Jews,” 587–­607. 60 For a discussion of the problems associated with demographic analysis in Ottoman Palestine, as well as an impressive attempt at engaging in such an analysis, see McCarthy, The Population of Palestine, especially 2–­5.

Attempting to answer this seemingly simple question is in fact a complicated task, and the challenge highlights the numerous geographical, social, cultural, political, and intellectual levels of encounter that are studied in this book. The following pages place Jerusalem in its local setting in Palestine, and Palestine more broadly in its Ottoman, Middle Eastern, and European contexts. As we shall see, the categories of religion and race employed by the communities of Palestine in their mutual perceptions are best understood within these multiple contexts.

This, too, suggests that for all communities in Palestine, far beyond the missionaries themselves, religion was a central concern. We must also keep in mind that these foreigners, whether diplomats or missionaries, brought with them contemporary European ideas about how to define and categorize people, including the developing notions of race. 58 The European presence in Palestine, then, only accentuated concerns with both religion and race that were already prominent there from other more “indigenous” sources.

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