By M. S. Mani M. A., D. Sc., F. L. S. (auth.)

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Sometimes, however, filzgalls arise on the shoot axis, petiole and flowers also. The filzgall ranges from small obscure patches of abnormal hairs to extensive and dense hairy masses. The commonest examples of filzgalls are found on different Angiosperms like Acer, Tilia, Nephilium, Alnus, Fagus, Vitis, Gossypium, etc. The Acarina which give rise to filzgalls occurinamongthehairs. , which, however, occur within the hairy cells. JJ H Fig. 16. Morphologic types of galls. A-B. Simple fold galls; mantel galls, with only slight swelling of the leaf blade.

Simple marginal roll gall. H. Epiphyllous leaf margin roll gall, with pronounced swelling. I. Epiphyllous double margin roll gall. J. Simple hypophyllous leaf margin roll gall. K. H ypophyllous margin roll gall. L. H ypophyllous double margin roll gall. 38 usually associated with other more or less pronounced abnormalities and modifications of the leaf, such as bulging and arching of the blade, rolling of the leaf margin and pouch-like evaginations or out-pocketings (vide infra). The form and size of the hairs of the filzgall reveal characteristic variations (vide trichomes).

Phanerogams. , parasitic on diverse other plants, give rise to large woody galls, with insignificant anatomical and histological abnormalities. For an account of the development of the haustoria of the parasite Cuscuta in the gall it produces reference may be made to THOMPSON 1149. The haustoria arise underneath the epidermis of the parasite. The outer region of the modified epidermal cells of the parasite becomes closely applied to the epidermis of the host plant. Once this 34 contact is established, the middle group of cells dissolve away their way through the host epidermis by the action of an enzyme and thus constitute the prehaustoria.

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