By P. Skalle
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23) Derivation of pressure loss for laminar pipe flow, through macroscopic view: The same results as achieved above in the previous paragraph can be achieved through a macroscopic view. 38 Drilling Fluid Engineering r Hydraulic friction in the circulating system R p1 t v(r) p 2 dx Figure 4-5: A fluid element in pipe flow. 27) is graphically shown in Figure 4-6: tw 0 r Figure 4-6: Shear stress distribution in a liquid flowing laminarly through a pipe. 28) These two equations are referred to as the universal pressure loss equations since they are valid for all rheologies.
Submerged exit losses are independent of geometry. In sudden expansions, the loss coefficient can be determined by simple analysis. 61) Table 4-3: Typical loss coefficients for restrictions vs. its geometry. / G The most known singularity losses in the drilling fluid circulation system are summarized below. Bit nozzle Drilling mud is discharged at the bottom of the hole through the bit nozzles.
Table 4-3 presents loss coefficients for typical singularity loss geometries. In sudden contractions up to 50 % of the kinetic energy change can be lost, while for sudden enlargements 100 % of the change can be lost. 0, independent of geometry. In a submerged exit all velocity head is lost due to viscous dissipation. This is in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Submerged exit losses are independent of geometry. In sudden expansions, the loss coefficient can be determined by simple analysis.