By Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski
Simply because she is largely looked within the box of latest philosophy of faith, Linda Trinkaus Zagzebski's newest booklet may be an enormous contribution to moral concept and theological ethics. on the center of her paintings lies a brand new type of advantage idea in response to the sentiments. particular from deontological, consequentialist and teleological advantage theories, this concept has a specific theological Christian origin.
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Mackie 1977, p. 40) It does seem odd that a property in the world could be essentially magnetic to any perceiver of it, but the peculiarity arises largely because Mackie assumes that objective value is the value of ends, means, to say that a person is an end in Kant’s sense is just to say that he ought not to be treated that way. The good of ends in the Kantian sense, in the Aristotelian sense, and in the sense of aims must all be distinguished from intrinsic good, since the former have to do with the way we value things rather than with the source of the value.
15 A moment’s reflection, however, reveals that this is not typical. We do not often act in order to produce certain motives in either ourselves or others, and in any case, the evaluation of motives is not limited to those cases in which we do. Ordinarily, a motive is neither identical to whatever state it is that aims at some end, nor an end itself. If intrinsic good is confused with the good of ends, the apparent conclusion is that motives have no intrinsic value. In Chapter 2, I will argue that this is a mistake, but in order to identify the mistake we need to clear up the confusion between motive and aim as well as that between intrinsic good and the good of ends.
I also want to show that motivation-based virtue theory fits the description of the kind of virtue ethics Watson thinks would be truly different from both a deontological ethics and an ethics of outcome, even though his criteria for being significantly different are unusually demanding. Early in his paper, Watson identifies two important theses that putatively distinguish a virtue theory from other theories. The first is a thesis about the relation between a right act and a virtue. The second is a thesis about the relation between a virtue and the good.