By James R. Rest

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Without a basis for common understandings, there is chaos in people's minds about what to expect of each other—hence Stage 4's concern that if one deviation to law is allowed, actual social chaos will ensue. Stage 4 is vulnerable to that particular overcompensation popularly referred to as the "law and order" mentality. Statement—Heinz: "It is a natural thing for Heinz to want to save his wife, but it's still always wrong to steal, You have to follow the rules regardless of how you feel or regardless of the special circumstances.

Response—scored "hit": "It only deals with the consequences in the individual if he gets caught. . (He says) the reason not to break the law is because of the inconvenience to yourself if you get DEVELOPMENTAL FEATURES OF MORAL JUDGMENT 27 caught . . " 2c. Cooperative interaction is based on simple exchange. Statement—Heinz story: "(Heinz is) running more risk than it's worth unless he's so crazy about her he can't live without her. " Response—scored "hit," rejection: "He is only worried about what will happen to Heinz, he will be in jail.

The subject's discussion was then scored as comprehending a stage-distinctive idea in the original prototypic statement (scored a "hit") or as not comprehending it (scored a "miss"). The format of the presentation below is (a) to describe theoretically the assumed understanding at each stage of the two factors underlying moral development (namely, concepts of how expectations about each other's actions are coordinated, known, and shared; and concepts about how an equilibrium or balance of interests of people in a cooperating group is achieved).

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