By Carl Ratner

Qualitative methodologies in cultural psychology usually lack the target and verifiable personality of quantitative research. writer Carl Ratner corrects this shortcoming by way of carefully systematizing qualitative equipment. The ebook discusses, for instance, technique of systematizing such subjective stories as interviews, letters, and diaries, which regularly yield worthwhile facts that's not simply quantified. Ratner argues that "complex mental phenomena are expressed via prolonged responses" and accordingly are top studied through new, extra regularized qualitative equipment that transcend measuring uncomplicated, overt responses.

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17 with trustfulness. These extremely low correlations indicate that class has no real bearing on morality or receptivity toward change. However, the correlations are statistically significant, and Kohn used this statistical significance to justify sweeping social psychological conclusions about the pronounced and consistent effects of social class on attitudes (p. 86). After admitting the minuteness of the correlations, he nevertheless proclaimed that "the lower men's social class positions, the more likely they are to feel that personal morality is synonymous with obeying the letter of the law; the less trustful of their fellowman they are; and the more resistant they are to innovation and change" (Kohn, 1977, 80).

Factor analysis was invented by Spearman in 1904. It takes a set of quantitative responses and determines which ones correlate most highly. Responses that intercorrelate are presumed to represent a common psychological factor. " Factor analysts speak of factors "emerging" from the intercorrelations as though the similar numerical scores are necessarily caused by a single psychological factor. However, the leap from quantitative correlations to psychological relationships is unjustified. The mere fact that you strongly agree with certain items on one or more inventories does not mean that the items are psychologically related and compose a psychological factor.

Order effects do not accompany all reversals in questions and response alternatives. However, they are common and they constitute a potential problem that must be addressed. Unless the researcher finds that responses are unaffected by the order of items, he must recognize the possibility that reactions are limited to the particular sequence of questions and response alternatives in which they were obtained. In these cases, responses cannot be generalized to other contexts of inquiry. Order effects of stimuli demonstrate that attitudes are not simple, singular, discrete thoughts that can be automatically elicited by simple, singular, discrete items.

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