By David Nicolle

The debacle of the second one campaign in 1148 triggered the Crusader States to grasp the need of constructing a extra wary procedure. the unique expansionist spirit mostly disappeared, and the Crusader States made priorities of strengthening their current fortifications and cities and construction new castles. those constructions encompassed middle facets of Western ecu army structure with the combination of quickly constructing Arab and Islamic traditions. Following citadel 21: 'Crusader Castles within the Holy Land 1097â€"1192', this publication examines the layout, improvement and shielding rules of a few of the best-known Crusader fortifications and castles, together with Crac des Chevaliers, Castel Blanc, Arsuf, Margat, Atlit, Montfort and Acre.

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The convention resolved that Betar was an organization based on a military structure and linked organizationally with the Revisionist movement, though preserving a measure of autonomy. As mentioned, Ze' ev Jabotinsky, the leader of the Revisionist Party, was elected head of Betar at the founding convention. Betar in Poland aspired to set up an organization with the task of preparing its members to be soldiers in the service of the homeland. They were convinced that a military struggle was the one and only road to political independence.

Under the terms of this agreement, the Histadrut recognized the independent existence of the National Workers' Federation, the labor union of the Revisionist Party in Palestine, which was controlled by Betar. " The agreement was signed against the background of violent disputes between the Histadrut and the National Workers' Federation, with the Histadrut striving to maintain a comprehensive closed shop system. Some clashes, however, were wholly politically motivated. Betaris, for example, were attacked by an organized group of workers during a parade they held in the streets of Tel Aviv.

The world of symbols and the concomitant disregard of reality, and the ability to live with the contradiction between symbolic activity and political reality, typified this political camp. 36 THE ROAD TO POWER The Betar Organization in Poland From the outset Betar emphasized military education. For the young activists, this was the outgrowth of a belief that a military struggle was the road to political independence in Palestine. It was this stance of the young generation in Poland that attracted a large influx of young people to the movement's ranks.

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