By A. J. Hundhausen

Little greater than ten years have handed seeing that spaceprobe-borne tools con­ clusively proven the life of the sun wind. those observations con­ firmed the elemental validity of a theoretical version, first proposed through E. N. Parker, predicting a continuing, fast growth of the sun corona. the following decade has obvious an enormous development in either the breadth and class of sun wind observations; the homes of the interplanetary plasma close to the orbit of the earth at the moment are recognized in nice aspect. the idea of the coronal ex­ pansion has additionally been hugely refilled either within the experience of together with extra actual tactics, and of treating extra practical (time-dependent and non spheri­ cally-symmetric) coronal boundary stipulations. the current quantity is an try and synthesize the sun wind observations and coronal enlargement versions from this decade of speedy improvement. the final word objective is, after all, the translation of saw sunlight wind phenomena because the results of uncomplicated actual tactics happening within the coronal and interplanetary plasma and because the average manifestations of sun homes and constructions. This process implies an emphasis upon the "large-scale" positive factors printed through the observations. It calls for wide use of the suggestions and strategies of fluid mechanics.

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Hydromagnetic Discontinuities The common occurrence of abrupt changes, or "discontinuities," in solar wind properties has already been mentioned in relation to Fig. 3. A small fraction of these changes have been shown to reflect the passage of shock fronts. Two examples of the far more common "directional discontinuity" are shown in parts (a) and (b) of Fig. 5. These variations in solar wind properties are not, of course, actually discontinuous. Siscoe et at. 11] have examined the time required for the observed magnetic changes at a sample of discontinuities, and found that 80% of An Identification, Description, and Classification J 31 - - - - - - - - - CD CD ~ ~<.

Months of Mariner 2 data acquisition. Later discussions of solar wind observations have generally followed the lead of Neugebauer and Snyder in associating low-speed solar wind with a quiet state. Fig. 2]. Between April 1 and April 15, the flow speed was nearly always observed to be near 320kmsec- 1 (note, ,. -, ~. -... ~ ,. , ~. 2] 38 Chapter III. The Dynamics of a Structureless Coronal Expansion however, that data gaps do exist). These observations demonstrate that low-speed solar wind does occasionally fit the criterion for a steady phenomenon by displaying little change on the expansion time scale of ~50h.

Fig. 14]. The 34 Chapter II. The Identification and Classification change in the observed proton density at the discontinuity is probably smaller than the accuracy of the density determination. The interpretations of directional discontinuities in the interplanetary magnetic field as either tangential or rotational lead to contrasting concepts of the fine structure of interplanetary space. -.... ,....... __ , \. .. N . ooPyi '. o.. '1. -t ' • " or ~ T , ',' , "' . or .. :". . r :,'1\. 1. •.

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