By Simon Haslett
Coastal Systems bargains a concise creation to the approaches, landforms, ecosystems, and administration of coasts. every one bankruptcy is illustrated and contains topical case reports from all over the world such as:
* Tsunami's in Papua New Guinea
* cliff cave in in Southern England
* the nice Barrier Reef
* the Indian 'Super Cyclone' of 1999
* the influence of improvement within the Florida Keys.
Introductory chapters determine the significance of coasts and clarify how they're studied inside a approach framework. next chapters discover the position of waves, rivers and sea point adjustments in coastal evolution. the ultimate bankruptcy experiences the human pressures and administration of coastal platforms.
Read or Download Coastal Systems (Routledge Introductions to Environment) (2001) PDF
Best environmental studies books
As a part of an international attempt to spot these parts the place conservation measures are wanted so much urgently, international flora and fauna Fund has assembled groups of scientists to behavior ecological checks of all seven continents. Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar is the newest contribution, proposing in one quantity the 1st in-depth research of the country of freshwater biodiversity throughout Africa, Madagascar, and the islands of the sector.
A brand new, holistic transdisciplinary endeavour born within the twenty first century, Sustainability technological know-how: handling hazard and Resilience for Sustainable improvement goals to supply conceptual and functional methods to sustainable improvement that support us to know and deal with uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity and dynamic switch.
Animal phylogeny is present process an important revolution as a result of availability of an exponentially expanding quantity of molecular facts and the applying of novel equipment of phylogentic reconstruction, in addition to the numerous magnificent advances in palaeontology and molecular developmental biology. conventional perspectives of the relationships between significant phyla were shaken and new, frequently unforeseen, relationships are actually being thought of.
Additional info for Coastal Systems (Routledge Introductions to Environment) (2001)
Source: modified from Briggs et al. 2b, p. 303) where Co is wave-velocity (m s−1) of a deep water wave. An observation that can be made from this equation is that waves with a high wave-period, and therefore, a long wave-length, travel faster than low wave-period, short wave-length waves (Suhayda and Pettigrew 1977; Pethick 1984). Because we are dealing with coasts, all waves that are relevant to our study eventually encounter water depths shallower than wave-base (a depth equal to one quarter of the wave-length).
This process is often dramatically seen with the drowning of coastal forests that colonised the coast during the interseismic period, which may last several hundreds of years. Long and Shennan (1998) provide an example from the Washington-Oregon coast, USA. gradient, and in many respects their topography is very similar to leading edge coasts. These are known as neo-trailing edge coasts and the present-day coasts of the Red Sea belong to this subdivision. As divergence progresses, the sea expands and erosion of the coast increases, both by wave activity at the shoreline, and through the action of high energy streams flowing down steep hills.
Diffraction. This modification process allows waves to enter into areas perceived to be protected, such as the lee-side of islands, behind breakwaters and within harbours. Island shadow zones are often characterised by choppy wave conditions as waves diffract in from both sides of the island, sometimes creating conditions more hazardous to sailors than exposed coasts, and makes island hopping quite uncomfortable for those without sea-legs! Also, harbours and breakwaters should be designed to minimise diffraction by aligning structures parallel to the fetch direction, as far as is possible, to protect valuable water-craft and sea-side buildings from storm wave attack.