By Richard J. Frances MD, Sheldon I. Miller MD, Avram H. Mack MD

This authoritative paintings comprehensively examines all points of addictive issues and their remedy. best researchers and practitioners establish most sensible practices in evaluate and analysis and supply instruments for operating with clients of particular elements. concerns in operating with specific populations--including polysubstance abusers, culturally varied sufferers, ladies, and older adults--are addressed, and normal psychosocial and pharmacological therapy methods are reviewed. An crucial textual content for an individual learning or treating those time-honored, tough problems, the booklet describes how you can tailor interventions to every patient’s wishes whereas offering compassionate, evidence-based care.

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Particular patterns of alcohol–drug production or use may represent rebellion by disenfranchised groups (Connell, 1961; Lurie, 1970). HISTORY OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT Historical and literary accounts have long documented individual attempts to draw back from the abyss of alcohol and drug abuse. At various times autobiographical, biographical, journalistic, and anecdotal, these descriptions list centuries-old recovery methods still employed today in lay and professional settings. Modalities include gradual decrease in dosage; symptomatic use of nonaddicting medications; isolation from the substance; relocation away from fellow users; religious conversion; group support; asylum in a supportive and nondemanding environment; and treatment with a variety of shamanistic, spiritual, dietary, herbal, and medicinal methods (Westermeyer, 1998).

Prog Neurobiol, 56, 385–431. Grace, A. A. (2000). The tonic/phasic model of dopamine system regulation and its implications for understanding alcohol and stimulant craving. Addiction, 95(Suppl 2), S119–S128. Kling, M. , Carson, R. , Matochik, J. , et al. (2000). Opioid receptor imaging with PET and [18F]cyclofoxy in long-term, methadone-treated former heroin addicts. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 295, 1070–1076. Koob, G. , & LeMoal, M. (2001). Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24, 97–129.

Social “time-out” and meeting friends) but minimal or no ritual or ceremonial aspects. , to reduce symptoms associated with social phobia, low self-esteem, boredom, or chronic dysphoria). , to relieve loneliness, insomnia, or pain). 2. Historical and Social Context 23 Other purposes exist but are not as widespread as those described earlier. In the 19th century, young European women took belladonna before social events in order to give themselves a ruddy, blushing complexion. A particular substance or pattern of use can represent a social or ethnic identity (Carstairs, 1954).

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