By Peter Liddel

Peter Liddel deals a clean method of the outdated challenge of the character of person liberty in historical Athens. He attracts broadly on oratorical and epigraphical proof from the overdue fourth century BC to examine the ways that principles approximately liberty have been reconciled with principles approximately legal responsibility, and examines how this reconciliation was once negotiated, played, and awarded within the Athenian law-courts, meeting, and during the inscriptional mode of booklet. utilizing glossy political thought as a springboard, Liddel argues that the traditional Athenians held liberty to include the giant duties (political, monetary, and armed forces) of citizenship.

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Vannier (1988: 107) makes this general point; see Ch. 4. 131 Gauthier’s (1985: 4–5) distinction between political and institutional history is drawn by others, such as Connor (1971: 4–5); R. G. Osborne (1985b: 64). On the employment of an analysis of institutions in understanding political practice, see Hansen (1989d). Note also Gomme’s (1951) and A. Jones’s (1957: 99–137) studies of the working of Athenian democracy, based upon a descriptive analysis of the institutions, procedures, and origins of democracy.

7. OBLIGATION AND LIBERTY IN MODERN THOUGHT The term ‘political obligation’, in modern political theory, is often used to refer to the general obligation to accept the state—to obey the directives and officials of a government 119 —the problem that is encountered in Plato’s Crito (51e4). 120 Rosler has recently suggested that Aristotle too was deeply interested in this question. 121 As Parekh pointed out in 1993, a second sense of political obligation in modern thought refers to the obligation to participate in societal activity to the degree of at least upholding the institutions that protect justice, 122 a problem also addressed in the Crito (52c2, d2–3, d5).

On the significance of this context, see Ch. 7. 22 Introduction Euxitheus uses the association of not being able to live as one likes with democratic citizenship to his advantage. Admitting that he and his mother had worked as ribbon sellers, he ran the risk of antibanausic prejudice and the Athenian association of menial mercantile tasks with non-citizens. Accordingly, he associates selling ribbons with the fact that they could not live as they wished (D. 31). Euxitheus went on to stress that this was not an indication (semeion) that they were not Athenians.

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