EBCDIC, are performed by protocols at this layer.

The initial crowd of 200 vendors signed on so far is certainly impressive, and the list is likely to grow. But the big question is whether the level of implementation is deep enough to support true interoperability. Industry vets remain skeptical, in view of vendors' manipulation of SNMP implementations on their respective devices in order to protect turf—leaving customers in the lurch, stuck using network management systems with significant blind spots. Yet there is much optimism for DEN. Sponsors such as Cisco and Microsoft are sure to effect sufficient motivation to toe the architectural line.

Moreover, the routers must be able to update their route tables dynamically, as networks and/or routers become available or unavailable. Routing protocols keep a recent view of the network and all the available routes within that network. These protocols enable the routers they serve to keep track of all the other devices in the network, the state of those devices, and the best routes available for passing data along the network. Distance-Vector Routing There are two primary types of routing protocol: distance-vector and link-state.

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