By A. D. Danilov (auth.)
I used to be more than happy to profit that Plenum Press has made up our minds to put up an English variation of Chemistry of the Ionosphere. even supposing the e-book was once mostly meant for the Soviet reader so as to fill a few gaps in Russian-language studies on aeronomic difficulties, i am hoping that it can be worthy to overseas experts engaged in iono spheric examine to boot. evidently, in the course of the time which has elapsed because the education of the Russian version new reports were released on the earth literature at the difficulties handled during this booklet. an important of those are famous within the ap pendix to this version, yet a few difficulties (for instance, with recognize to the physics of unfavorable ions within the decrease ionosphere) require an intensive reexamination, which can't be performed in a quick appendix. i'll be happy if booklet of the e-book in English will as sist in elimination the various at the moment current ambiguities in simple difficulties of higher surroundings chemistry. A. D. Danilov Preface to the Russian variation 1 within the final decade astonishing successes were accomplished within the examine of the earth's higher surroundings through use of rockets and synthetic satellites. those investigations have made it transparent that the higher surroundings (and really the ionospheric area at altitudes 100-1000 km) is a significantly extra complicated formation than will be visualized ahead of the appearance of energetic experiences with area vehicles.
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32 ELEMENT ARY PROCESSES IN THE IONOSPHERE [CHAP. 15) The energy of a quantum (or a particle, in the case of dissociative ionization by corpuscular streams) necessary for the dissociative ionization of molecular nitrogen is approximately 25 eV (A = 495 A), and of molecular oxygen, 19 eV (A = 650 A). The relative efficiency of dissociative ionization processes is small in comparison with direct ionization. According to a detailed investigation described in a study by Weissler et al. , for example, the cross section of appearance of N+ ions duripg the ionization of an N2 molecule by radiation with A = 400-500 A is 1-2 orders of magnitude less than the cross section of appearance of ions.
This means that the atmospheric ionization rate is a function of the solar activity level and it is essential to have q values for different conditions. The authors of  emphasize that their q values apply to July, 1963, which was characterized by quiet solar conditions. An analysis of the dependence of the ionization rate on density variations in the upper atmosphere is given in  by Ivanov-Kholodnyi. On the basis of experimental data on variations of atmospheric density with a change of the solar activity level the author of  computed the ionization rates for different solar zenith angles for maximum and minimum atmospheric density.
The total ionization rate at altitudes oflOO-400 km obtained in [311 for four solar 36 ELEMENT ARY PROCESSES IN THE IONOSPHERE [CHAP. 2 H, km 350 300 250 200 150 Fig. 4. Change in ionization rate for different atmospheric components with altitude when Zo = 0, from . zenith angles is shown in Fig. 3. The authors made a detailed study of the contribution of different spectral regions to formation of ionization at different altitudes and computed the ionization rates of individual atmospheric components.