By Stephen Jacobson

Supplying a window into the background of the trendy felony occupation in Western Europe, Stephen Jacobson provides a heritage of attorneys within the so much industrialized urban at the Mediterranean. faraway from being mere curators of static legislation, Barcelona's legal professionals have been on the heart of social clash and political and monetary switch, mediating among kingdom, relatives, and society.Beginning with the resurrection of a decadent bar throughout the Enlightenment, Jacobson lines the historic evolution of attorneys during the lengthy 19th century. one of the matters he explores are the attributes of the fashionable criminal career, how legal professionals engaged with the Enlightenment, how they molded occasions within the Age of Revolution and helped consolidate a liberal constitutional order, why a liberal occupation grew to become conservative and corporatist, and the way legal professionals promoted fin-de-siècle nationalism.From the vantage element of a urban with a amazing criminal tradition,Catalonia's Advocates presents clean perception into eu social and criminal historical past; the origins of liberal professionalism; the schooling, education, and perform of legislations within the 19th century; the growth of continental bureaucracies; and the corporatist points of contemporary nationalism.

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Additional info for Catalonia's Advocates: Lawyers, Society, and Politics in Barcelona, 1759-1900 (Studies in Legal History)

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Under the Bourbons, natives were not barred from achieving these coveted positions, but it was more difficult than before. Spain’s first two Bourbon kings, Philip V and Ferdinand VI, preferred to mix natives with outsiders, a policy based on the supposition that candidates born and bred in distant locales were less dependent on local networks of power and patronage, less prone to venality, and more faithful to the crown. The framers of the Representation, however, were not convinced by this principle of Bourbon statecraft, which was applied not only in the Crown of Aragon but in many of the other kingdoms as well.

Table 1 shows that, following the implantation of absolutism under Philip V in 1716, the number of lawyers in the city decreased sharply. After bottoming out, the bar  The Modern Profession S 31 Table 1. Lawyers per 10,000 Inhabitants in Barcelona Year 1389 1589 1716 1759 1802 1847 1887 Total Number of Lawyers Approximate Population Lawyers per 10,000 Inhabitants 39 130 165 109 215 329 653 40,000 35,000 30,000 75,000 115,000 160,000 270,000 10 37 55 15 19 21 24 Sources: For figures running between 1359 and 1716, see Amelang, “Barristers and Judges,” 1269.

24 From all perspectives, then, and even in their own words, the bar was at a historical nadir. The days of a noblesse de robe were long gone, distinguished advocates no longer served as venerated counselors to political bodies, talented forensic minds did not ascend to the bench with the frequency of the past, and the bar had become a career destination for the so-called poor. No doubt, a few advocates felt suffocated within a walled city, rapidly expanding in population, where royal appointees and army officers — many recruited from outside the region and ignorant of local laws, customs, and language — dominated positions of authority and political power.

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