By Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schulze, Dr.-Ing. Malte Homann (auth.)

The publication treats the C -hydrocarbons and their secondary items as a contribution four to chemical engineering economics, utilising this box of educating and learn to the technical methods for making and processing this staff of goods, so very important to the chemical undefined. As early as tpe Nineteen Fifties the then director of the Institute for Technical Chemistry of the Berlin Technical collage, Professor Herbert Kolbel, took the' initiative within the area of Chemical Engineering Economics and commenced systematic reports of venture Engineering and value Estimation in reference to chemical crops. He additionally began a direction on technical chemical methods in 1966. houses, creation tactics, plant gear, and in addition the makes use of of technically fascinating items are the imperative positive factors of Chemical expertise. the data is to be present in the big encyclopedias of Technical Chemistry. nevertheless, Chemical Engineering Economics offers with all of the fiscal stipulations of utilization of the uncooked fabrics, chances of using co-products, and the combination of those items into sure construction programmes, from the stand­ aspect of the chemical and technical basics of the tactics. extra vital viewpoints are the prices of the goods, taking into account vital and variable impacts on those expenses, the location and improvement of the marketplace for the goods and, of accelerating value, additionally the ecological worldwide stipulations for paying for uncooked fabrics and the construction and advertising of the actual products.

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I-Butane Gas to fuel Reactor n-Butane Hydrogen Compressor Fig. 9. 2 Processes of Butane Conversion Isomerised butanes recycle i-Butane Organic chloride make-up Oeisobutanizer Fuel gas Make-up gas Stabilizer Butanes feed C5 + Reject Fig. 10. 2 Dehydrogenation The dehydrogenation of n-butane gives a mixture of butenes which can be further dehydrogenated or oxydehydrogenated to butadiene: CH r CH 2-CH2-CH 3 n-Butane CH2=CH-CH2-C~ ~ CH2=CH-CH 2-CH 3 1-Butene + CH3-CH=CH-CH3 (+1120 ) + CH 3-CH=CH-CH 3 cis+trans 2-Butene - H2 (-H20 I • 2CH2=CH-CH=CH2 Both reaction steps are endothermic and each requires an energy supply of about 2100 to 2300 kJ/kg butane used.

27]. 27]. 4-Butinediol CH=CH : CH20H-CH=CH-CH20H CH 20H-CH 2 - CH 2- CH 20H CH 2-CH2....... 4- Butanediol Tetrahydrofuran In Germany during the very active period of acetylene chemistry, up to 150,000 tla butadiene was produced using these two processes during the second world war. Although the Reppe process requires only half as much acetylene as the Aldol process, it has also become uneconomical because of its energy requirements compared to the petrochemical routes. At the moment the Reppe process is applied only as far as the 1,4-butanediol stage; in Japan, 1,4-butanediol is being prepared from butadiene in the reverse reaction (see Sect.

36]. In this one-step process the gas is directly dehydrogenated on an AIICr-oxide catalyst to a mixture of n-butenes and butadiene. A disadvantage of the process is the rapid deactivation of the catalyst through coke deposit on its surface. The cyclical use of at least three reactors in parallel is thus obligatory. After 5 to 15 min reaction time in each, the rectors must be regenerated, which involves burning off the coke residue, furnishing heat for the next reaction period. Unreacted butane is recycled together with the butenes.

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