By Michael Mendillo, Andrew Nagy, J. H. Waite Jr.

Published by way of the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.

Atmospheres are the most important elements of our universe. they're the single observable areas of stars and colossal planets, either inside of and past our sun process. a few terrestrial-size our bodies (Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan and Triton) have everlasting atmospheres whereas others (e.g., Mercury, Moon, Io, and Europa) have tenuous gaseous envelopes that vary day-by-day. Comets are tiny our bodies by way of planetary yardsticks, yet their atmospheres could be the biggest noticeable gadgets within the evening sky. Atmospheric technology strives to appreciate how any such different set of atmospheres shape, evolve, and disappear.

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I. Lunine, J. B. Pollack, and R. H. Brown, Lower Atmospheric Structure and Surface-Atmosphere Interaction on Triton, in Neptune and Triton, ed. D. P. Cruikshank, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 1031-1106, 1995. Young, L. , J. L. Elliot, A. Tokunaga, C. de Bergh, and T. Owen, Detection of Gaseous Methane on Pluto, Icarus, 127, 258, 1997a. Young, L. , R. V. Yelle, R. E. Young, A. Seiff, and D. B. Kirk, Gravity waves in Jupiter's thermosphere, Science, 276, 108-111, 1997b. Zolotov, M. , and B.

2000]. T h e m o m e n t u m equa­ tion is described as [cf. Rishbeth and Garriott, 1969]: d U / d t + 2ft x U = F - i / ( U - V ) + {p/p)V U•+ 2 n i g et al [1997] as a source of solar heating while the particle heating calculated by Grodent et al [2001] (energy spectrum was described by a three-kappa dis­ tribution with total energy, E = 22 keV, and flux ~ 100 ergs c m s ) is used for t h e auroral region. T h e ion-drag scheme has been modified for the ther­ mosphere of Jupiter. A convection electric field has been estimated and corresponding ion drifts (V# and V^: t h e meridional and zonal components of V) are generated using an ionospheric convection model; this model, based on Voyager measurements of ion convec­ tion in t h e outer magnetosphere [Eviatar and Barbosa, 1984], is m a p p e d t o high latitudes using the V I P 4 mag­ netic field model [Connerney et al, 1998].

2. W i n d s as strong as 35 m / s blow between 70° and 220° longitudes because of strong ion convection and large pressure gradients near t h e auroral ovals. T h e wind p a t t e r n in non-auroral re­ gions is quite uniform. At low and mid-latitudes the winds reach their peak values of a b o u t 3 m / s while at t h e equator their speed reduces t o 2 m / s . T h e corre­ sponding t e m p e r a t u r e structure indicates t h a t energy is being t r a n s p o r t e d to these latitudes by strong adiabatic cooling within t h e auroral zone [cf.

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