By Douglas A. Levine, Richard R. Barakat, William J. Hoskins
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In many instances, this horizontal transfer may have marked biological (transforming) consequences. , 2008). g. , 2008). , 2008). , 2010). , 2009) and viewed as a mechanism of cell recruitment to the malignant process. 4 Intercellular exchange Interactions between exosomes and their target cells may depend on the specific ligandreceptor recognition events. , 2003). , 2008). Interestingly, cloaking PS by exposure of exosomes to Annexin V often obliterates their uptake by target cells. , 2008). , VEGFRs, Tie, Notch), including ligands traditionally assumed to act almost exclusively in a cell-associated manner (Dll4, ephrins) (Kerbel, 2008).
2009). Fig. 8. Dendritic cell exosomes can be harvested and used in immunotherapy. , 2005). Of the 13 patients enlisted in the trial, 9 finished the treatments and no toxicity was observed. , 2005). This trial concluded that dendritic cell exosomes are safe for use therapeutically, but that better responses may result from including Treg inhibitors in the treatment. , 2009). 3 Summary The use of exosomes as a cancer therapeutic has been demonstrated to be effective in murine studies and safe by Phase I clinical trials.
This observation led to various studies to try to elucidate the role of secreted membrane vesicles in cancer. TEX can be described as “multi-purpose carriers” which have important roles in the communication, protection, as well as the exchange of genetic information with neighboring cells (Nieuwland & Sturk, 2010). The production and secretion of TEX is important for the tumor. , 2010). , 2008). , 2004). TEX has also been implicated in the further growth of tumor by the exchange of genetic material.