By Marco Barbero, Roberto Merletti, Alberto Rainoldi

Invasive electromyography is a well-established diagnostic software that has been used for many years by way of neurologists. lately, new and substitute units have more and more develop into on hand that let prognosis with out using needles. This constructing quarter of technology and the hot instruments haven't, despite the fact that, been sufficiently investigated in educational education. as a result a spot exists among what technological know-how is making attainable and the competence got in the course of graduate experiences. this convenient quantity has the purpose of filling this hole via delivering the knowledge required via scientific practitioners in rehabilitation, activities, and occupational overall healthiness in addition to by way of rehabilitation therapists, ergonomists, and game coaches. The suggestions which are awarded and defined may also help in tracking and recording alterations, comparing the effectiveness of remedies and coaching, comparing paintings stations, and combating and documenting the evolution of occupational issues of the neuromuscular system.

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7 look like if the 29 fiber had the NMJ near the end instead of in the middle? What would a differential signal look like if taken between electrodes 7 and 9, or between 6 and 10, or between 5 and 11, in Fig. 7c? Could such signals be recovered if only differential signals (no monopolar) had been recorded? Can the fiber length be estimated from the signals depicted in Fig. 7? Which set of signals would provide a better estimate? 5 The Motor Unit Action Potential (MUAP) A muscle is made up of many motor units, with each motor unit (MU) consisting of a motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers it innervates.

These currents flow in the extracellular space and produce potential distributions on the surface of the skin, as indicated in Fig. 8c, d. Another way of describing AP generation and propagation phenomena is to consider the positively and negatively charged extracellular regions 26 3 Generation, Propagation, and Extinction of Single-Fiber and Motor Unit Action Potentials (indicated as + – + in Figs. 4) generated (and propagating) in space by each AP as a tripole of electrical charges producing an electric field in the surrounding conductive volume and a potential distribution on the skin surface, just as described in Fig.

11c (black inverted triangles), collects the potential (V12,4 + V12,5 + V13,4 + V13,5)/4. In this case, any common component remains unchanged. Differential spatial filters are used to “focus” the detection in a specific region of space and to attenuate contributions from lateral and deeper sources: they act as “focusing devices” limiting the “detection volume” of the system. Of course, they can be applied to a group of pixels and then, iteratively, along successive columns of detectors un- til the entire grid is covered.

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