By Aristotle.; Schreiber, Scott Gregory; Aristotle
A complete examine Aristotle's treatise on logical fallacies
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Extra info for Aristotle on false reasoning : language and the world in the Sophistical refutations
22 treatment of the resolution of the fallacy, because it provides the best general description of the error along with a wealth of examples, culminating in the Third Man Argument. A review of these examples reveals three variations on the general notion of a Category mistake. E. 4 introduction to the fallacy. There Aristotle alludes to certain other examples, again generated by morphological similarities in word terminations, which seem to result in gender confusions. E. I then show how such gender confusions ﬁt within the threefold scheme of Category mistakes.
Aristotle’s explanation is that t¿ d°on signiﬁes two things. , is desirable), which is true of good things. Aristotle next presents a pair of sophistical arguments attempting to show that the same individuals satisfy contrary descriptions. 3A. The person who stood up is standing. ˙sper ™n√stato, ¤sthken. The sitting person stood up. ™n√stato ˛ kaq–menoV. __________ __________ The same person is both sitting and standing. 3B. The person who became healthy is healthy. The sick person became healthy.
The latter two are examples of that use of homonymy from the Categories: things having a name in common but differing in deﬁnition. In contrast, “the sick person” does not signify two things of different deﬁnition, but signiﬁes two different referents both having the same deﬁnition. E. 1, whereby the same name signiﬁes multiple particulars under a universal. In this case, the multiple particulars are only differentiated temporally. E. 1) will reappear in Aristotle’s examples of amphiboly. Aristotle chooses his examples to show the two different ways in which homonymy may be abused in syllogistic reasoning.