By Douglas Walton, Professor Christopher Reed, Dr Fabrizio Macagno

This publication offers a scientific research of many universal argumentation schemes and a compendium of ninety six schemes. The learn of those schemes, or varieties of argument that catch stereotypical styles of human reasoning, is on the center of argumentation learn. Surveying all elements of argumentation schemes from the floor up, the ebook takes the reader from the effortless exposition within the first bankruptcy to the newest cutting-edge within the learn efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, defined within the final bankruptcy. It presents a scientific and accomplished account, with notation appropriate for computational purposes that more and more utilize argumentation schemes.

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Once an argument has been analyzed, it can be saved in a format called AML ( the Argument Markup Language ) that can then be used for many purposes - for example, in a database or on a web page. An example is shown in Figure 1 . 1 . Work is currently under way to provide web access to the online databao;e of argument analyses inde­ penden tly of the Araucaria application . Araucaria has been designed for use by teachers and students i n cri tical thi n king courses, or in courses with a critical thi n king ao;pect.

It could be called the compk•teness problem fo r critical questions. Once the rt�spondt•nt has run through the list of cri tical qm·stions matching a BaJir TooL� in IM Stall' of thl' A rl scheme, can he go on to ask even more specific c ri tical questions raised by the previous answers? The problem is one of how argumentation schemes are binding on a respondent. Presum ptive schemes are defeasible. They are not deductively v-alid. The question , then, is how long the process of asking c ritical questions can continue before the argument must fi nally be acet·pted as binding the respondent to acceptance of the conclusion , if he has accepted the premises.

But to mount such an attack, the cri tic has to produce some fairly substantial e\idence. Otherwise, the question is merely an innuendo. Next consider five. If the claim can be shown to be inconsistent wi th what other experto; in the field say, then that is an argument against the claim. I t is a rebu ttal, especially if what the other experts say represen t'\ the gt·nerdlly accepted opin ion in the fil'ld. But that needs to be shown by tel ling us what the other experts have in fact said, and by showi ng how these statements conflict with what our expert hao; said.

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