By H. H. Shorey
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Extra resources for Animal Communication by Pheromones
This averaging, however, allows for approximate calculations of communication distances. 4 DISTANCES OF PHEROMONE COMMUNICATION — ► FIG. 12. Calculated mean active space of pheromone in the air downwind from a continuously releasing source located at ground level. ] used to determine a theoretical mean maximum distance of pheromone communication in moving air (92): X = (8Q/vK)*/t where X = communication distance (cm), Q = pheromone release rate (jug/second), K = pheromone response threshold (^g/cm 3 of air), and v = wind velocity (cm/second).
13. Maximum theoretical distances of sex pheromone communication between female and male cabbage looper moths, estimated by (A) the formula of Bossert and Wilson, and (B) the formula of Sower et al. [Adapted from Sower et al. 4 DISTANCES OF PHEROMONE COMMUNICATION estimation of the maximum theoretical distance of successful pheromone communication (Fig. 13). Data needed for these calculations, including the rate and duration of pheromone release, the response threshold and locomotion rate of the responder, and wind velocity, are rarely available.
If the queen is lost from the swarm, the worker bees usually find her by sensing the 9-oxodec-irani-2-enoic acid (13) that she releases (608), and the swarm moves to her location. Bees of a dequeened swarm can recognize their own colony queen from a foreign queen, apparently by perceiving the small differences in colony odors adsorbed on the queen's body (76, 430). The workers release Nassanoff pheromone when they find their own queen, stimulating the remainder of the swarming bees to form a cluster in that location (76, 122, 215, 408, 431, 675).