By Donald W. Katzner

In plying their alternate, social scientists frequently are faced with major phenomena that seem incapable of dimension. prior perform could recommend that tips to care for those circumstances is to paintings more durable at discovering acceptable measures in order that general quantitative research can nonetheless be utilized. Professor Katzner's process, besides the fact that is sort of diversified. instead of focusing on the development of measures, he increases the query of the way such phenomena could be investigated and understood within the absence of numerical gauges to symbolize them.

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Based on propositions from the theory of differential equations, Bertalanffy outlined an approach to the analysis of general systems and described several system properties. Subsequent development has been quite rapid. This is not the place to pursue the evolution of Bertalanffy's abstrac10 This paragraph and the next are based on von Bertalanffy [5, pp. 21-8]. 26 Introduction tion. Instead, an attempt will be made to describe briefly some of the meanings it has today. The notion of system seems to have appeared on at least three distinct levels: (i) as applied to practical problems, (ii) as used to reorganize approaches and redefine concepts in various disciplines, and (iii) as studied to gain a better understanding of its logical foundations and properties.

References 1. Apter, D. , The Politics of Modernization (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965). 2. Arrow, K. , Social Choice and Individual Values, 2nd ed. (New York: Wiley, 1963). 3. Ashby, W. , Design for a Brain, 2nd ed. revised (New York: Wiley, 1960). 4. Bertalanffy, L. von, General System Theory (New York: Braziller, 1968). 5. Bertalanffy, L. von, "The History and Status of General Systems Theory," in G. J. , Trends in General Systems Theory (New York: Wiley, 1972), pp. 21-41. 6. , Readings in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (New York: Macmillan, 1968).

2). Because the interval topology is Hausdorff, convergence is unique. The scale / is said to preserve convergence provided that for all sequences {[an]} in A and all points [a] in A, lim [an] = [a] n—* if and only if n-Mm f([an])=f([a]) A convergence preserving scale is therefore continuous with respect to the interval topology and conversely. Consider for a moment the special case in which p is an equivalence relation such that p is empty. ) Thus no ordering of the equivalence classes in A is induced by p, and consequently, the ordering typology described by p is merely a classificatory typology.

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