By John Weinman

* completely revised to mirror the key advancements within the box of psychology as utilized to medication and the emergence of 'health psychology' as a considerable speciality * New themes were extra together with sections on counselling, cognitive ways to therapy * The references within the textual content and for extra studying were up-to-date and revised * a large yet short assessment of psychology as utilized to drugs * presents a kick off point & framework for scientific scholars

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The discussion will be limited to one variable, namely body t e m p e r a t u r e , which is the most extensively studied and is most commonly used in correlating physiological with psychological changes during the 43 A r o u s a l , circadian r h y t h m s and s l e e p 98-598-398-1LL 0) 3 97-9- +-» u. 97 7α ε υ 97-5> Ό 0) Ο OÙ 97-397-1 • 0400 0800 1200 1600 2000 2400 0400 Time of day Fig. 7. Time of day and body temperature. 24-hour cycle. Measures of daily changes in body temperature have been recorded in a large n u m b e r of studies and typically the pattern which is found can be seen in Fig.

4 Arousal, circadian rhythms and sleep In many ways this chapter follows on conveniently from the end of the previous one which described the role of the reticular formation in controlling the level of wakefulness. It appears to do so by exerting a non-specific activating effect on the whole neocortex via a complex system of diffusely projecting afferent fibres. This activation can be directly affected by the level of sensory input and by the individual's internal emotional state. T h u s , the reticular formation is greatly concerned with the control of cortical arousal as evidenced by brain wave activity.

Thus if people are given more time to r e m e m b e r a list of words, they may be able to generate rehearsal strategies which facilitate memory. iL Individual differences Although short-term memory is often described as a fixed capacity store it is clear that a range of short-term memory ability exists within the population and which is partly but certainly not wholly related to intelligence. Moreover long-term memory ability varies enormously both between and within individuals. The extreme examples here are the so-called 'memory freaks', a very small group of individuals whose long-term memory capacity is greatly in excess of the majority and sometimes apparently limitless.

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