By M. Houngnikpo
Matt Houngnikpo examines how household clash, financial stagnation, political instability, poverty and underdevelopment have plagued Africa for many years. He argues reversal of the political, financial and social plight of Africa lies in higher rules, solid governance, and, extra importantly, a brand new kind of African chief and citizen.
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With new technological achievements, industrialization took off for new heights. Thanks to new technology, Europe’s capacity to produce exceeded its capacity to consume. Each European country was therefore faced with the need to sell its goods beyond its borders. Unfortunately, customs barriers were erected, making intra-Europe trade very difficult. The only alternative left to Europeans was the search for new markets outside their continent. A SYNOPSIS OF AFRICA’S PLIGHT 21 Search for New Markets Although Europeans powers ended up annexing or conquering territories outside Europe, the first contacts, from the fifteenth century onward, seem to have been dictated foremost by economic calculations.
Caused the laws of a complex society to be carved on stone, the most advanced Europeans were peoples like the Swiss Lake Dwellers, simple agriculturists who lived in shelters built over the water to protect themselves from beasts and men. 9 A closer look at the social organization of these empires and kingdoms shows that they had very little reason to envy their contemporary European counterparts. Buttressing that point, Falola maintains that: Africa has been inhabited for more than three million years.
23 42 AFRICA’S ELUSIVE QUEST FOR DEVELOPMENT In all fairness, the African masses deserve a great deal of credit for their impact on the democratic transition in Africa. 24 Often equated with the emergence of new patterns of political participation outside of formal state structures and one-party systems,25 civil society is a necessary condition for the persistence of modern democracies. 26 Most scholars saw civil society in Africans’ successful struggle against despotic rulers, repressive regimes, and governments that violated both their individual and their collective rights.