By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer

This monograph presents a global point of view on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been realized over the last decade via study and sensible adventure on easy methods to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the publication, normal medical matters are offered in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technology, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the odd organic good points that ensue within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy offers an outline of equipment at the moment used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the booklet is a suite of local surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 ecu nations and Australia, and case experiences of varied person consultant lakes. a last case examine presents an cutting edge method of assessing the commercial price of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a worthwhile instrument for selection makers.

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Sandstone. Often, soil cover and the weathered zone provide conditions similar to that present in unconsolidated rock. Waste rock dumps are also similar to unconsolidated rock with respect to water flow and the interaction between the air in the underground pores and the minerals. Of course, the relationship between groundwater and pit lakes is a two-way street; pit lakes are influenced by groundwater, but also influence groundwater. For example, evaporation from a lake surface and surficial outflows of pit lakes can cause a long term depression of the groundwater surface in the vicinity of the lakes.

2001; Wisotzky and Obermann 2001). Consequently, lake water chemistry has to be generalized with care and several exceptions might exist. Pit Lake Water Chemistry The first examples of strip mine pit lake water chemistry were from hard coal mining in the USA and were published by Campbell and Lind (1969), Campbell et al. (1964), and Parsons (1964), based on initial studies of Crawford (1942; cited in Campbell et al. 1964) and Heaton (1951, cited in Campbell et al. 1964) from coalfields in the Cedar Creek region of Missouri.

In pit lakes resulting from coal and lignite mining, only iron and aluminum reach concentrations high enough to form relevant buffering systems. Calcium, sodium, and potassium (Fig. 17a) do not show a clear concentration dependence on pH. This may be due to the formation of secondary minerals, such as gypsum and jarosite. 1). For at least some of the Australian pit lakes, the diversion of highly saline water into lakes from the local rivers during the first flush at the beginning of the wet season would have likely disrupted any relationship between these cations and pH.

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