By Stephen Chapman MB BS MRCS MRCP FRCR, Richard Nakielny MA BM BCh FRCR

This booklet provides a synoptic description of the sensible info of the way to hold out the typical systems in imaging on which an exam candidate may be anticipated to be favourite. It doesn't try to hide rarer options past the scope of the examination or to teach the ensuing pictures. each strategy is defined lower than a suite of ordinary headings (for instance: equipment, symptoms, apparatus, sufferer instruction, procedure, aftercare, issues, additional reading).

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London. A. A. (1996) Complications in Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology. Oxford: Blackwell Science. , Cosgrove, D O . G. (1999) Textbook of Contrast Media. Oxford: Isis Medical Media. G. (1982) Intravascular contrast media - the past, the present and the future. Br. J. Radiol. 5 5 , 1-18. CONTRAST AGENTS IN MRI MECHANISM OF ACTION To enhance the inherent contrast between tissues, M R I contrast agents must alter the rate of relaxation of the protons within the tissues. 4). These show that, for a given time t, if the Tl relaxation is more rapid then a larger signal is obtained (brighter images), but the opposite is true for T2 relaxation where more rapid relaxation produces reduced signal intensity (darker images).

Diabetes mellitus, which is present in 50% of cases of contrast medium nephrotoxicity. Approximately 75% of patients with juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency will show deterioration of renal function after HOCM. In as many as 50% of these patients the renal function will not return to baseline levels. 3. Dehydration. 4. Age - because of the greater incidence of cardiovascular disease in the elderly. 5. Very large doses of contrast medium. 6. Multiple myeloma. 7. Other nephrotoxic drugs.

1. Doses of contrast media in children depend on age. Pelvic scanning Rarely it may be necessary to opacify the rectum using direct instillation of contrast medium or air via catheter. The concentration of contrast medium should be the same as for oral administration; 150 ml is adequate. Vaginal tampons may also be used. The air trapped by the tampon produces good negative contrast. SAFETY IN MRI Potential hazards associated with magnetic resonance imaging which may affect patients and staff are due to: 1.

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