By Dale Jacquette

This number of newly comissioned essays by means of foreign individuals deals a consultant evaluation of an important advancements in modern philosophical logic.

  • Presents controversies in philosophical implications and functions of formal symbolic logic.
  • Surveys significant tendencies and provides unique insights.

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The theory of consequence in medieval logic, of course, treats of the Aristotelian theory of the syllogism, that is the theory of inference among categorical judgments. Such judgments have the S is P form, but they are not just simple predications such as [Sortes is (a) man]. The copula can vary both in quality and quantity. An affirmative judgment has the form [S is P] and a negative one has the form [S is not P], whereas a universal judgment has the form [all S are P] and a particular one has the form [some S are P].

The systems of Lesniewski are based on traditional rather than Fregean logic, and might work much better here. A standard reference is D. P. Henry’s lucid Medieval Logic and Metaphysics (London: Hutchinson, 1972) that also serves as an admirable introduction to Lesniewski. The German Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie gives an incomparable survey of medieval logic. Individual, detailed lemmas, for instance, those on “Prädikation” and “Logik” have been of great help to us. This dictionary is also an invaluable guide, not just to medieval logic, but to the entire conceptual development of logic.

He saw the general outline of what logic would much later become, but left only fragments of a ‘universal characteristic’ through which it would become possible, he thought, to settle philosophical disputes through calculation. 9). Traditionally, an exposition of logic followed the sequence: theory of terms or concepts, their combination into judgments, and the composition of syllogisms from judgments. This was now commonly prefaced by a discussion of the origin of concepts, as inherent in the mind or deriving from sensation and perception.

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